Category Archives: Social Effects of Shisha

Social Personal Effects of Smoking Shisha

Shisha was a smoking tradition in the Middle-Eastern, and smoking it was started or began hundreds of years ago, it was even there before the invasion of American and British cigarette companies, therefore making it among the most common and unbelievably interesting sites of Arab World as a whole, even though there are many social personal effects of smoking shisha.

It is prepared by soaking tobacco in molasses or fruit shavings like apples, grapes and may be strawberry. The prepared mixture then is smoked using a large designed water pipe also known as hookah. People, that is males and females who are rich or in upper classes in Arab world have always been entertaining guests using the hookah pipes for a very long time.

Shisha is just a flavoured tobacco that can be smoked using the designed hookah pipe. The flavoured mixture is heated using charcoal and sometimes wood fuel. Smoke that comes from the flavoured tobacco is passed through the water chamber or part ion in the designed pipe into a tube like pipe with something like a mouthpiece that the smoker inhales or smokes through.

There are myths that smoking tobacco using the hookah pipe is quite safe. Some people have wrong thinking that water captures or removes the toxins so that the smoker is not exposed to them. The water does cool the smoke, but that does not makes it less harsh or harmless. Not knowing that cooling the smoke will not equal to safer smoke. The possibilities that dangers coming from smoking shisha could be possibly more than the dangers of or that are associated with cigarettes smoking. In fact, shisha exposes you to more smoke compared to cigarette smoking. According to World Health Organization, in a smoking session or one smoking session averagely a shisha smoker inhales or smokes the equivalent of about one hundred full cigarettes.

Those who smoke shisha can suffer from increased levels of carbon monoxide in their blood system, which then combines with haemoglobin leaving limited space for oxygen haemoglobin combination research has finally revealed. It also has caused alarm using its findings that one full session of smoking or inhaling shisha can result to increase in carbon monoxide levels by at least five to six times higher compared to the amount produced by smoking just one complete cigarette. Higher levels of carbon monoxide leads maybe to brain damage and unconsciousness and it is common in congested rooms or a places with limited air that’s why social personal effects of smoking shisha are dangerous. Tobacco is not less toxic in a designed hookah pipe, and the liquid that is water in the hookah do not completely filter out or remove the toxic ingredients and compounds in the inhaled flavoured tobacco smoke, shisha smokers actually inhale more of tobacco.

Shisha smoke has high levels of many toxic compounds including cancer causing chemicals or carcinogens, heavy metals, carbon monoxide and tar. Social personal effects of smoking shisha maybe linked to lung cancers with severe oral cancers, and a number of heart diseases and other strange serious illnesses in human beings who smoke them.

Hookah smoking has been found to produce almost the same quantity of nicotine as cigarette inhaling or smoking does and it may lead possibly to tobacco dependence or addiction. Shisha smoke have similar dangers that are commonly associated with many second hand smoking or smoke. In fact smoking pregnant women can lower birth weight of babies as a result. Hookah pipes are frequently used in many hookah cafes and bars and may not be properly cleaned thus risking the spread of many infectious diseases to the smokers like herpes.

Social personal effects of smoking shisha may also be linked to a number of other unique and strange risks that are not associated completely with cigarette smoking. These may include infectious and dangerous diseases like tuberculosis that infects the lungs and many other parts of the human body. Then there is also aspergilla which are a fungus that may cause lung infections that are dangerous and expensive to treat. There is the helicobacter that causes stomach ulcers that can be commonly spread through sharing the smoking pipe or through maybe the way the mixture flavoured tobacco is being prepared and handled.

In fact, a long period shisha smoking sessions can expose hookah smokers to dangerously high social personal effects of smoking shisha because of the higher quantities of carcinogens and heavy chemicals present in it compared to smokers of cigarettes. The risks of having cancer, addiction, heart diseases and respiratory diseases are also higher compared to cigarette smokers.

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Is shisha more harmful than cigarettes

You have glaringly heard about smoking and the other smoking procedures and a small number of you even may take a little information on shisha smoking but I’m assuming that there has to be at least 1 or 2 in your middle who are not privy to the brilliant calamities that shisha smoking unleashes in the life of a smoker.

Around the world, shisha smoking is not as abundant as cigarette usage, but the inescapable damage from shisha smoke is far bigger compared to the unsafe results of cigarette usage! Just at any reference to shisha, a significant number of people are struck with complete problem for the explanation that they are not able to interpret the meaning of this phenomenon and, the concept that explains that give up smoking is a fast requirement for a shisha smoker? If you are in the same difficulty and the term “shisha smoking” appears totally confusing to you then let me inform that shisha is nothing except an oriental tobacco pipe.

The shisha pipe is attached to a flexible tube which is significantly long and it is further attached to a container where the tobacco is kept and cooled by passing thru water. Returning to the possible harm from shisha smoking, I’d like to point out that in a single session, the smokers breathe a substantial range of tobacco smoke which is two hundred times more compared with the smoke that a smoker consumes by lighting up a fag. Now try and imagine the inescapable annihilation from shisha smoking! Studies have made it obvious that a giant quantity of catastrophic chemical is present in shisha smoke which is literally capable of causing cancer and heart sicknesses in folks.

Taking stock of the catastrophic results of shisha smoking, around the planet the health fans are demanding an instant ban on shisha smoking. But whether you smoke shisha or cigarettes, stop smoking is a prerequisite and for what it is worth you have gotten to pull up your socks and carve out an efficient smoking suspension programme as agreed by the advices of the doctor! According to the French anti-tobacco agency (OFT), a communication from the French state lab disclosed that smoking shisha releases as much carbon monoxide as fifteen to 52 cigarettes and as much tar as twenty-seven to 102 cigarettes.

Bertrand Dautzenberg, OFT President asserted, “The report affirms that smoking shisha is an important provider of air pollution in closed and covered areas. If comparing the info to regular ciggie smoke, one shisha fits with a mean of around seventy drags on a cigarette.” The tests were conducted by Laboratoire Nationwide d’Essais (LNE) on 3 kinds of shisha : shisha with self-lighting carbon utilized in tiny amounts, self-lighting carbon employed in large quantities, and natural carbon shisha employed in tiny volumes. The lab employed the 3 parameters that are measured when analysing smoke on a packet of cigarettes : the quantity of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. For seventy litres (sixteen gallons) of smoke given off by the shisha, the tiny amount self lighting carbon tar results were measured at 319 mg, 32 times the legal EU limit for a gasper, while the enormous amount self-lighting carbon measured at 266 mg, twenty-seven times the gasper limit, and the natural carbon measured at 1,023 mg, a 102 times more than a cig.

Carbon monoxide measurements fared badly also, as tests suggested that the carbon measurements from the 3 kinds of shisha came to seventeen times the standard fag limit, fifteen times, and 52 times the limit. The self-lighting carbon in both small and generous amounts for nicotine measured about one cig per shisha, while the natural carbon was the nicotine equivalent of smoking 6 cigarettes. France’s hookah-pipe bars begged to be excused from a ban on smoking in cafeterias and cafes which comes into force on Jan first 2008.

Many casual smokers have long regarded as the hookah pipe a divertingly social, a touch fitter alternative option to smoking cigarettes but the hookah is as dangerous as, or worse than supposed cancer sticks, according to a Times report.

Fitted out with the most recent health studies, statesman’s from California to Maine are endeavouring to curb or ban hookah bars, which became the “newest front in the ever-shifting war on tobacco.” Is smoking flavoured tobacco thru a water pipe actually as rotten cigarettes? Yes, hookahs are lethal : “Several studies have linked hookah use to several of the same sicknesses linked with smoking, like lung, oral and bladder cancer together with blocked up arteries, heart problems and detrimental effects during pregnancy,” announces Douglas Quenqua in The Times.

Because a hookah session can persist for an hour, one hazy intermission may be the equivalent of smoking a hundred cigarettes.

And, hookahs are often smoked communally, a practice that is linked to spreading infective viruses like herpes and tuberculosis. “Putting a crimp in the hookah” What a buzzkill : This is “kind of depressing,” asserts Cassie Ramsey, a sophomore at Johnson & Wales School, as quoted by The NY Times. I used to be a “frightfully keen hookah smoker” last summer. At least daily, my buddies and I’d get involved in sessions that might go on for some time. Now, “I only smoke once, perhaps twice a month.” Bummer! “Putting a crimp in the hookah” Well, the majority of people likely will not stop:

This is just the awful latest in a sequence of “friendly reminders” from the Times about the hazards of hookah pipes, asserts Erik Hayden at The Atlantic Wire. Since at least 2006, the paper has been publishing articles like this. And giant surprise! Few college kids are “heeding the warning.” It looks you can momentarily lead a young child away from the water pipe, but you can do not do anything to stop him from turning back around and having a puff. Hookah smoking is not more safe in comparison to smoking. AKA narghile, shisha and gaza, a hookah is a water pipe with a smoke chamber, a bowl, a pipe and a hose. Specifically made tobacco is heated, and the smoke passes thru water and is then drawn thru a rubber hose to a mouthpiece.

The tobacco is no less dangerous in a hookah pipe, and water in the hookah does not clear out the noxious ingredients in the tobacco smoke. Hookah smokers may breathe more tobacco smoke than ciggie smokers do thanks to the enormous volume of smoke they breathe in one smoking session, which can last so long as 1 hour. While research about hookah smoking is still developing, proof shows that it poses many risks : Hookah smoke contains raised levels of poisonous compounds, including tar, carbon monoxide, heavy metals and cancer-causing chemicals (cancer inducing agents). Actually hookah smokers are exposed to more carbon monoxide and smoke than are gasper smokers.

As with cigarette usage, hookah smoking connects to lung and oral cancers, coronary disease and other serious sicknesses. Hookah smoking delivers about the same quantity of nicotine as cigarette usage does, potentially leading to tobacco dependence. Hookah smoke poses perils linked with second-hand smoke. Hookah smoking by expecting mothers could lead to low birth weight babies. Hookah pipes employed in hookah bars and cafeterias will not be cleaned correctly, hazarding the growth of communicable sicknesses.

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Effects of Second-hand Smoke in the Home

The dangers of exposure to second-hand smoke are well established and it has been against the law to smoke in a work or enclosed public place in the United Kingdom since July 2007. However, measures to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke in the home have received little attention, despite the fact that for many people, and for children in particular, this is the location where most exposure takes place.

The health impact of second-hand smoke

Breathing in other people’s tobacco smoke (second-hand, passive or involuntary smoking) is known to cause a range of disorders from
minor eye and throat irritation through to heart disease and lung cancer. Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of second-hand smoke and exposure increases the risk of cot death, glue ear, asthma and other respiratory disorders. A review by the British Medical Association’s Board of Science concluded that there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke for children and adverse effects can be found at low levels of exposure.

Why opening a window doesn’t help

Opening a window or restricting smoking to a specific room offers little protection against exposure to second-hand smoke.  Researchers have found that smoke from one cigarette can linger in a room for up to two and a half hours even with a window open. Other measures such as smoking out of a window or smoking next to an extractor fan are equally ineffective at keeping smoke out of the home. Restricting smoking to one room in the house is also insufficient to protect non-smokers from exposure to second-hand smoke. Other research has shown that pollution from second-hand smoke can linger on carpets, furnishings and walls. These materials absorb the toxins found in tobacco smoke and gradually release them back into the air, posing an additional risk of exposure.

Public awareness and attitudes

A survey by Smoke Free London in 2001 revealed very low unprompted awareness of the impact of second-hand smoke on children. Only 26% of respondents identified asthma and 22% respiratory illness or lung infections as a likely impact. Two of the most common ailments associated with passive smoking – cot death and glue ear – were identified by only 3% and 1% of parents respectively.

Since the introduction of smoke free legislation, public awareness about the impact of exposure to second-hand smoke has risen considerably. A 2007 survey by the Office for National Statistics, found that 91% of respondents thought that living with a smoker would increase a child’s risk of chest infections. Awareness of the risk of ear infections was lowest with just 34% of respondents believing that this was a risk factor.

Studies suggest that where smoke free work and public places are the norm, parents are more likely to make their own home a tobacco-free zone. A recent study in Scotland found that children’s exposure to second-hand smoke has fallen by 39% since the introduction of smoke free legislation. Furthermore, smoke free workplaces encourage smokers to quit. The corresponding reduction in smoking among adults means that fewer children are likely to be exposed to smoke at home.

Measures to protect children from exposure to second-hand smoke

It has been estimated that 40% of children in the UK (approximately 5 million) are routinely exposed to second-hand smoke. Restrictions on smoking in day care settings have been in place since 2003 but there are no laws to protect children from exposure to second-hand smoke from in the home.

Studies measuring second-hand smoke exposure in the home show that the most reliable way of reducing exposure is to stop smoking indoors. Partial measures such as restricting smoking to particular rooms or not smoking in the presence of children are insufficient to protect the health of non-smokers. Thus if parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, the next best step is to at least make the indoor environment smoke free.

Many programmes aim to reduce smoking in the home by encouraging parents and carers to stop smoking. However, in a review of such interventions, only four out of 18 studies found a statistically significant effect, suggesting that such interventions are largely ineffective. This suggests that population-level changes such as mass media health promotion are needed in order to achieve changes in attitude and behaviour.

Second-hand smoke and pets

Pets are also at risk when exposed to second-hand smoke. A recent study in the United States found that even limited exposure to tobacco smoke more than doubled a cat’s risk of feline lymphoma.  Another study found an association between exposure to second-hand smoke and nasal cancer in dogs. Birds and rabbits are likely to be at risk.

Animals don’t just suffer the ill-effects of inhaling cigarette smoke. Particulate matter within the smoke settles on their coats and is ingested during grooming. Pets also sometimes eat cigarettes and other tobacco products causing nicotine poisoning which can be fatal.


An Emerging Deadly Trend: Water pipe Tobacco Use

In the last few years, new popularity for an old form of tobacco use has been gaining ground within this already susceptible group. Water pipes (also known as hookahs) are the first new tobacco trend of the 21st century. This Trend Alert looks at the emerging water pipe tobacco use trend and the widespread misperceptions that exist about its use.

Existing evidence on water pipe smoking shows that it carries many of the same health risks and has been linked to many of the same diseases caused by cigarette smoking. Access to this “new” form of tobacco use continues to grow, especially in hookah cafes targeting 18-to-24-year olds. The tobacco control community must educate the public about the potential dangers of the growing water pipe trend.

In the last few years, new popularity for an old form of tobacco use has been gaining ground within this already susceptible group. Water
pipes (also known as hookahs) are the first new tobacco trend of the 21st century. Originating in the Middle East and spreading throughout Europe and the United States. These small, inexpensive, and socially-used tobacco pipes have become as fashionable as cigars were in the later 1990s, especially among urban youth, young professionals, and college students. Small cafés and clubs that rent the use of hookahs and sell special hookah tobacco are making their mark on the young, hip, urban scene. Like many tobacco products, use of these pipes is linked to lung cancer and other respiratory and heart diseases. Water pipe tobacco smokers are exposed to cancer-causing chemicals and hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide.

Water pipe users are also exposed to nicotine, the substance in tobacco that causes addictive behaviour. Despite knowing the dangers of water pipe smoking, one study found that most (more than 90%) beginning water pipe smokers believe cigarette smoking is more addictive than wastepipe smoking. The same study also found evidence that the use of water pipes is increasing throughout the world.

Background and History

The wastepipe is used to smoke specially made tobacco by indirectly heating the tobacco, usually with burning embers or charcoal. The smoke is filtered through a bowl of water (sometimes mixed with other liquids such as wine) and then drawn through a rubber hose to a mouthpiece. Other common names for water pipes include hookah, narghile or narghila, shisha or sheesha, and hubbly-bubbly.

Water pipes generally consist of four main parts:

  • The bowl where the tobacco is heated
  • The base filled with water or other liquids
  • The pipe, which connects the bowl to the base
  • The hose and mouthpiece through which smoke is drawn

Water pipe smoking originated in ancient Persia and India. The original “hookah” is believed to  have been carved from a coconut shell, with the milk used as a filtering agent. Early water pipes may have been used to smoke opium or hashish, as evidence of these water pipes predates the use of tobacco in the Middle East and Asia. After the advent of tobacco in the region, a special prod-uct was developed mixing shredded tobacco leaf and honey, molasses or dried fruit. This tobamel/ tabamel (combined tobacco and a sweetener) is generally called shisha in the United States. Pre-packaged quantities of shisha are sold in a variety of flavours, including apple, banana, berry, cherry, chocolate, coconut, coffee, cola, grape, kiwi, lemon, licorice, mango, mint, orange, peach, pineapple, rose, strawberry, tutti fruity, vanilla and watermelon.

  • Although limited research has been done on the health risks of wastepipe use, the existing evidence indicates that water pipe smoking carries the same or similar health risks as cigarette smoking.
  • Links have been made to many of the same adverse health effects, including lung, oral and bladder cancer, as well as clogged arteries and heart disease.
  • An analysis of mainstream smoke from water pipes found that it contains significant amounts of nicotine, tar and heavy metals.
  • A study of nicotine and cotinine (a chemical marker of nicotine exposure) levels in hookah smokers found high amounts of both chemicals after one session of hookah use.
  • Nicotine and cotinine levels were measured in the participants’ blood before and after smoking. The level of nicotine increased up to 250 percent and the cotinine level increased up to 120 percent after just one session of smoking, lasting 40 to 45 minutes.
  •  Water pipe use may increase exposure to carcinogens because smokers use a water pipe over a much longer period of time, often 40 to 45 minutes, rather than the 5 to 10 minutes it takes to smoke a cigarette.
  •  Due to the longer, more sustained period of inhalation and exposure, a water pipe smoker may inhale as much smoke as consuming 100 or more cigarettes during a single session.
  • These studies provide compelling initial data which suggest that water pipe smoke is at least as toxic as cigarette smoke.
  • Existing research into the direct and singular effects of water pipe smoking is complicated by the fact that many water pipe users also smoke cigarettes.
  •  Another potential problem is that commonly used heat sources that are applied to burn the tobacco, such as wood cinders or charcoal, are likely to increase the health risks from water pipe use because when burned on their own these heat sources release high levels of potentially dangerous chemicals, including carbon monoxide and metals.
  • Finally, the social aspect of water pipe smoking may put many users at risk for other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and viruses such as hepatitis and herpes. Shared mouthpieces and the heated, moist smoke may enhance the opportunity for such diseases to spread.

Also, although limited research has been done in this area, the second-hand smoke from a water pipe is potentially dangerous because it contains smoke from the tobacco itself as well as the smoke from the heat source used to burn the tobacco. More investigation is certainly needed to determine the health effects of both long- and short-term water pipe use, as well as the relative risk of water pipe use compared to other forms of tobacco use. However, the available research strongly indicates that water pipe smoking presents many of the same risks as cigarette smoking and is not a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes.

Perceptions, Awareness and Prevalence

Despite the evidence that water pipe smoking has health risks at least similar to cigarette smoking, the general perception is exactly the opposite. Water pipe tobacco smokers generally believe that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Most smokers also believe that the water-filtration and extended hose serve as filters for harmful agents.

A recent study of 1671 mostly Arab-American teens, ages 14 to 18, in Michigan found that 27 percent had ever used a water pipe. This percentage increased from 23 percent of 14 year-olds to 40 percent of 18 year-olds. The same study showed that water pipe use is also a strong predictor of cigarette smoking. The researchers found that the odds were two times greater that teens who used hookahs would also be cigarette smokers. Even more concerning, they found the odds of a teen experimenting with cigarettes were more than eight times greater if they had “ever smoked” a water pipe.

Most studies related to prevalence are from the Middle East and Asia. If the U.S. trend grows to resemble international patterns, however, the data are disturbing. A study of Israeli youth, ages 12 to 18, found that 41 percent had used a water pipe and 22 percent smoked at least every weekend. The rise in water pipe use in the United States may be a result of marketing for hookah cafés geared toward 18- to-24-year olds. These young adults appear to be the fastest-growing population of hookah users, especially in and around colleges and universities. As hookah popularityand prevalence increase, the fact that many young hookah users also currently smoke cigarettes18 should be a cause for concern to policymakers, university administrators, and the general public.

Hookah Bars and Cafes

The discovery and popularity of hookahs and establishments that rent hookah pipes, have grown greatly in the United States in the past ten years. Most U.S.-based distributors of shisha were established within just the last five years. As the Arab and Arab-American population in this country have grown, the availability and use of water pipes has also become more commonplace.

Hookah bars or cafés have sprung up in urban areas and cities and towns near large colleges or universities. Even a few of the states with strong smoke free air laws have been unable to slow the emergence of hookah bars and cafés. California, Illinois, New York, Texas and Virginia currently have the greatest number of these establishments, most of them located in major cities or near universities. However, hookah bars and cafés have appeared in more than two-thirds of the states. Based on U.S. business listings and categorized web-listings, an estimated 200 to 300 of them currently operate in the United States, with more appearing every day.

Trends and Marketing

Hookah smoking is commonly viewed as a social activity. Often done in groups of people who share one pipe and try different flavours throughout the evening, hookah smoking is seen as a relatively inexpensive way to “get together” and have fun. The expansion of the hookah bar and café industry, especially in inner cities and near universities and colleges where youth and young adults gather, illustrates the growth potential for hookah marketing and use.

Current marketing for hookah pipes and their specialized tobacco packs is fairly limited to specialized shops and online stores. The cafés and bars, on the other hand, are expanding rapidly to reach wider audiences. While online chats, blogs and other user sites are still a big part of the hookah culture in the United States, business owners are branching out. Advertisements in the nation’s 80 alternative, free weekly papers are very common, as are ads in college newspapers and magazines. Again, young urban adults and college students are the targets.


Existing evidence on water pipe smoking shows that it carries many of the same health risks and has been linked to many of the same diseases caused by cigarette smoking. Access to this “new” form of tobacco use continues to grow, especially in hookah cafes targeting 18-to-24 year olds. Water pipes can become yet another inducement to smoking that appeal particularly to a younger audience attracted by the reportedly sweeter, smoother smoke. They may have an appeal similar to the sweeter, candy-flavoured cigarettes and tobacco products that the tobacco industry has begun to market to young adults and youth who appear to be more attracted to these flavours than adults.

More research is needed into the health effects of water pipe use, and the patterns and process of beginning to use water pipes amongst various populations. Since little data exist on prevalence of hookah use in the United States, national surveys on youth and adult tobacco use should consider adding a question on this topic. There also is virtually no research on the risks of second-hand smoke from water pipe use. To protect the public from the potential dangers of the growing water pipe trend, the tobacco control community must work to correct the current misperceptions about the health risks of water pipe smoking. Advocates also must ensure that new smoke free air laws include hookahs and the places where hookahs are smoked and remove loopholes from existing laws that make hookahs popular and accessible. Health care providers, quit lines and university administrators should also consider offering culturally appropriate cessation products and services to help water pipe smokers attempt to quit.

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