Category Archives: Quit Shisha Blog

How Smoking Affects the Way You Look

Tobacco smoking seriously affects internal organs, particularly the heart and lungs, but it also affects a person’s appearance. While these changes are generally not as life threatening as heart and lung disease, they can, nevertheless, increase the risk of more serious disorders and have a noticeable ageing effect on the body.

Smoking and skin

The skin is affected by tobacco smoke in at least two ways. Firstly, tobacco smoke released into the environment has a drying effect on the skin’s surface. Secondly,
because smoking restricts blood vessels, it reduces the amount of blood flowing to the skin, thus depleting the skin of oxygen and essential nutrients.

Some research suggests that smoking may reduce the body’s store of Vitamin A, which provides protection against some skin-damaging agents produced by smoking.  Another likely explanation is that squinting in response to the irritating nature of the smoke, and the puckering of the mouth when drawing on a cigarette causes wrinkling around the eyes and mouth.

Skin damaged by smoke has a greyish, wasted appearance. Research has shown that the skin-ageing effects of smoking may be due to increased production of an enzyme that breaks down collagen in the skin. Collagen is the main structural protein of the skin which maintains elasticity. The more a person smokes, the greater the risk of premature wrinkling. Darkening of the skin around the eyes is also a possible effect of smoking.

Smokers in their 40s often have as many facial wrinkles as non-smokers in their 60s. In addition to facial wrinkling, smokers may develop hollow cheeks through repeated sucking on cigarettes: this is particularly noticeable in under-weight smokers and can cause smokers to look gaunt. A South Korean study of smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers aged 20 to 69 found that the current smokers had a higher degree of facial wrinkling than non-smokers and ex-smokers. Past smokers who smoked heavily at a younger age, revealed less facial wrinkling than current smokers.

Smoking and Psoriasis

Compared with non-smokers, smokers have a two to threefold higher risk of developing psoriasis, a chronic skin condition which, while not life-threatening, can be extremely uncomfortable and disfiguring. Some studies have found a dose-response association of smoking and psoriasis, i.e. the risk of the disease increases the longer a person continues to smoke. Smoking also appears to be more strongly associated with psoriasis among women than among men. Smoking may cause as many as one quarter of all psoriasis cases and may also contribute to as many as half of the cases of palmoplantar pustulosis, a skin disease involving the hands and feet, that some experts view as a form of psoriasis.

Smoking and weight

When people stop smoking, they usually put on weight. Although this is often a cause for concern, the average weight gain is around 2 to 3 kg and may be temporary. Although the reasons for weight gain are not fully understood, it has been partly explained by the fact that smoking increases the body’s metabolic rate – i.e. the rate at which calories are burned up. In addition, nicotine may act as an appetite suppressant so that when smokers quit an increase in appetite leads to an increase in calorie intake. The effect of nicotine on metabolic rate may also explain why smokers tend to weigh less than nonsmokers.

Experts believe that one way smoking raises metabolic rate is by stimulating the nervous system to produce catecholamines, (hormones which cause the heart to beat faster), thus making the body burn more calories. Nicotine also produces more thermogenesis, the process by which the body produces heat. This too, causes the body to use up more calories. Women and girls tend to be more concerned about their weight and body shape than men, and weight control may be influential in causing the higher incidence of smoking among teenage girls. However, post-cessation weight gain can be modified by eating a low-fat, calorie-reduced diet and by moderately increased exercise.

While weight gain is common immediately after stopping smoking, in the longer term, ex-smokers weight may return to the comparative weight of someone who has never smoked. The combination of excess weight and smoking has also been shown to accelerate the ageing process of the body. A study showed that being both overweight and a smoker can age a person by ten years or more.

Body shape

Although smokers tend to be thinner than non-smokers, the effect of smoking on the endocrine system (glands which secrete hormones) causes smokers to store even normal amounts of body fat in an abnormal distribution. Smokers are more likely to store fat around the waist and upper torso, rather than around the hips. This means smokers are more likely to have a higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) than non-smokers. A high WHR is associated with a much higher risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, gallbladder problems and (in women) cancer of the womb and breast.

In one study of nearly 12,000 pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 73, the waist to hip ratio increased as the number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. A study of American men also found a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked and waist-to-hip ratio.

However, changes to WHR induced by smoking need not be permanent. A Swedish study examined the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on the distribution of fat in a representative sample of women. The study found that women who stopped smoking experienced less upper-body fat deposition than would be expected by their accompanying weight gain. This suggests that while some weight gain after stopping smoking can be expected, it is less of a health risk because it is not deposited in the upper torso, where it is associated with increased risk of heart disease.

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Effects of Second-hand Smoke in the Home

The dangers of exposure to second-hand smoke are well established and it has been against the law to smoke in a work or enclosed public place in the United Kingdom since July 2007. However, measures to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke in the home have received little attention, despite the fact that for many people, and for children in particular, this is the location where most exposure takes place.

The health impact of second-hand smoke

Breathing in other people’s tobacco smoke (second-hand, passive or involuntary smoking) is known to cause a range of disorders from
minor eye and throat irritation through to heart disease and lung cancer. Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of second-hand smoke and exposure increases the risk of cot death, glue ear, asthma and other respiratory disorders. A review by the British Medical Association’s Board of Science concluded that there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke for children and adverse effects can be found at low levels of exposure.

Why opening a window doesn’t help

Opening a window or restricting smoking to a specific room offers little protection against exposure to second-hand smoke.  Researchers have found that smoke from one cigarette can linger in a room for up to two and a half hours even with a window open. Other measures such as smoking out of a window or smoking next to an extractor fan are equally ineffective at keeping smoke out of the home. Restricting smoking to one room in the house is also insufficient to protect non-smokers from exposure to second-hand smoke. Other research has shown that pollution from second-hand smoke can linger on carpets, furnishings and walls. These materials absorb the toxins found in tobacco smoke and gradually release them back into the air, posing an additional risk of exposure.

Public awareness and attitudes

A survey by Smoke Free London in 2001 revealed very low unprompted awareness of the impact of second-hand smoke on children. Only 26% of respondents identified asthma and 22% respiratory illness or lung infections as a likely impact. Two of the most common ailments associated with passive smoking – cot death and glue ear – were identified by only 3% and 1% of parents respectively.

Since the introduction of smoke free legislation, public awareness about the impact of exposure to second-hand smoke has risen considerably. A 2007 survey by the Office for National Statistics, found that 91% of respondents thought that living with a smoker would increase a child’s risk of chest infections. Awareness of the risk of ear infections was lowest with just 34% of respondents believing that this was a risk factor.

Studies suggest that where smoke free work and public places are the norm, parents are more likely to make their own home a tobacco-free zone. A recent study in Scotland found that children’s exposure to second-hand smoke has fallen by 39% since the introduction of smoke free legislation. Furthermore, smoke free workplaces encourage smokers to quit. The corresponding reduction in smoking among adults means that fewer children are likely to be exposed to smoke at home.

Measures to protect children from exposure to second-hand smoke

It has been estimated that 40% of children in the UK (approximately 5 million) are routinely exposed to second-hand smoke. Restrictions on smoking in day care settings have been in place since 2003 but there are no laws to protect children from exposure to second-hand smoke from in the home.

Studies measuring second-hand smoke exposure in the home show that the most reliable way of reducing exposure is to stop smoking indoors. Partial measures such as restricting smoking to particular rooms or not smoking in the presence of children are insufficient to protect the health of non-smokers. Thus if parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, the next best step is to at least make the indoor environment smoke free.

Many programmes aim to reduce smoking in the home by encouraging parents and carers to stop smoking. However, in a review of such interventions, only four out of 18 studies found a statistically significant effect, suggesting that such interventions are largely ineffective. This suggests that population-level changes such as mass media health promotion are needed in order to achieve changes in attitude and behaviour.

Second-hand smoke and pets

Pets are also at risk when exposed to second-hand smoke. A recent study in the United States found that even limited exposure to tobacco smoke more than doubled a cat’s risk of feline lymphoma.  Another study found an association between exposure to second-hand smoke and nasal cancer in dogs. Birds and rabbits are likely to be at risk.

Animals don’t just suffer the ill-effects of inhaling cigarette smoke. Particulate matter within the smoke settles on their coats and is ingested during grooming. Pets also sometimes eat cigarettes and other tobacco products causing nicotine poisoning which can be fatal.

 

An Emerging Deadly Trend: Water pipe Tobacco Use

In the last few years, new popularity for an old form of tobacco use has been gaining ground within this already susceptible group. Water pipes (also known as hookahs) are the first new tobacco trend of the 21st century. This Trend Alert looks at the emerging water pipe tobacco use trend and the widespread misperceptions that exist about its use.

Existing evidence on water pipe smoking shows that it carries many of the same health risks and has been linked to many of the same diseases caused by cigarette smoking. Access to this “new” form of tobacco use continues to grow, especially in hookah cafes targeting 18-to-24-year olds. The tobacco control community must educate the public about the potential dangers of the growing water pipe trend.

In the last few years, new popularity for an old form of tobacco use has been gaining ground within this already susceptible group. Water
pipes (also known as hookahs) are the first new tobacco trend of the 21st century. Originating in the Middle East and spreading throughout Europe and the United States. These small, inexpensive, and socially-used tobacco pipes have become as fashionable as cigars were in the later 1990s, especially among urban youth, young professionals, and college students. Small cafés and clubs that rent the use of hookahs and sell special hookah tobacco are making their mark on the young, hip, urban scene. Like many tobacco products, use of these pipes is linked to lung cancer and other respiratory and heart diseases. Water pipe tobacco smokers are exposed to cancer-causing chemicals and hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide.

Water pipe users are also exposed to nicotine, the substance in tobacco that causes addictive behaviour. Despite knowing the dangers of water pipe smoking, one study found that most (more than 90%) beginning water pipe smokers believe cigarette smoking is more addictive than wastepipe smoking. The same study also found evidence that the use of water pipes is increasing throughout the world.

Background and History

The wastepipe is used to smoke specially made tobacco by indirectly heating the tobacco, usually with burning embers or charcoal. The smoke is filtered through a bowl of water (sometimes mixed with other liquids such as wine) and then drawn through a rubber hose to a mouthpiece. Other common names for water pipes include hookah, narghile or narghila, shisha or sheesha, and hubbly-bubbly.

Water pipes generally consist of four main parts:

  • The bowl where the tobacco is heated
  • The base filled with water or other liquids
  • The pipe, which connects the bowl to the base
  • The hose and mouthpiece through which smoke is drawn

Water pipe smoking originated in ancient Persia and India. The original “hookah” is believed to  have been carved from a coconut shell, with the milk used as a filtering agent. Early water pipes may have been used to smoke opium or hashish, as evidence of these water pipes predates the use of tobacco in the Middle East and Asia. After the advent of tobacco in the region, a special prod-uct was developed mixing shredded tobacco leaf and honey, molasses or dried fruit. This tobamel/ tabamel (combined tobacco and a sweetener) is generally called shisha in the United States. Pre-packaged quantities of shisha are sold in a variety of flavours, including apple, banana, berry, cherry, chocolate, coconut, coffee, cola, grape, kiwi, lemon, licorice, mango, mint, orange, peach, pineapple, rose, strawberry, tutti fruity, vanilla and watermelon.

  • Although limited research has been done on the health risks of wastepipe use, the existing evidence indicates that water pipe smoking carries the same or similar health risks as cigarette smoking.
  • Links have been made to many of the same adverse health effects, including lung, oral and bladder cancer, as well as clogged arteries and heart disease.
  • An analysis of mainstream smoke from water pipes found that it contains significant amounts of nicotine, tar and heavy metals.
  • A study of nicotine and cotinine (a chemical marker of nicotine exposure) levels in hookah smokers found high amounts of both chemicals after one session of hookah use.
  • Nicotine and cotinine levels were measured in the participants’ blood before and after smoking. The level of nicotine increased up to 250 percent and the cotinine level increased up to 120 percent after just one session of smoking, lasting 40 to 45 minutes.
  •  Water pipe use may increase exposure to carcinogens because smokers use a water pipe over a much longer period of time, often 40 to 45 minutes, rather than the 5 to 10 minutes it takes to smoke a cigarette.
  •  Due to the longer, more sustained period of inhalation and exposure, a water pipe smoker may inhale as much smoke as consuming 100 or more cigarettes during a single session.
  • These studies provide compelling initial data which suggest that water pipe smoke is at least as toxic as cigarette smoke.
  • Existing research into the direct and singular effects of water pipe smoking is complicated by the fact that many water pipe users also smoke cigarettes.
  •  Another potential problem is that commonly used heat sources that are applied to burn the tobacco, such as wood cinders or charcoal, are likely to increase the health risks from water pipe use because when burned on their own these heat sources release high levels of potentially dangerous chemicals, including carbon monoxide and metals.
  • Finally, the social aspect of water pipe smoking may put many users at risk for other infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and viruses such as hepatitis and herpes. Shared mouthpieces and the heated, moist smoke may enhance the opportunity for such diseases to spread.

Also, although limited research has been done in this area, the second-hand smoke from a water pipe is potentially dangerous because it contains smoke from the tobacco itself as well as the smoke from the heat source used to burn the tobacco. More investigation is certainly needed to determine the health effects of both long- and short-term water pipe use, as well as the relative risk of water pipe use compared to other forms of tobacco use. However, the available research strongly indicates that water pipe smoking presents many of the same risks as cigarette smoking and is not a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes.

Perceptions, Awareness and Prevalence

Despite the evidence that water pipe smoking has health risks at least similar to cigarette smoking, the general perception is exactly the opposite. Water pipe tobacco smokers generally believe that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Most smokers also believe that the water-filtration and extended hose serve as filters for harmful agents.

A recent study of 1671 mostly Arab-American teens, ages 14 to 18, in Michigan found that 27 percent had ever used a water pipe. This percentage increased from 23 percent of 14 year-olds to 40 percent of 18 year-olds. The same study showed that water pipe use is also a strong predictor of cigarette smoking. The researchers found that the odds were two times greater that teens who used hookahs would also be cigarette smokers. Even more concerning, they found the odds of a teen experimenting with cigarettes were more than eight times greater if they had “ever smoked” a water pipe.

Most studies related to prevalence are from the Middle East and Asia. If the U.S. trend grows to resemble international patterns, however, the data are disturbing. A study of Israeli youth, ages 12 to 18, found that 41 percent had used a water pipe and 22 percent smoked at least every weekend. The rise in water pipe use in the United States may be a result of marketing for hookah cafés geared toward 18- to-24-year olds. These young adults appear to be the fastest-growing population of hookah users, especially in and around colleges and universities. As hookah popularityand prevalence increase, the fact that many young hookah users also currently smoke cigarettes18 should be a cause for concern to policymakers, university administrators, and the general public.

Hookah Bars and Cafes

The discovery and popularity of hookahs and establishments that rent hookah pipes, have grown greatly in the United States in the past ten years. Most U.S.-based distributors of shisha were established within just the last five years. As the Arab and Arab-American population in this country have grown, the availability and use of water pipes has also become more commonplace.

Hookah bars or cafés have sprung up in urban areas and cities and towns near large colleges or universities. Even a few of the states with strong smoke free air laws have been unable to slow the emergence of hookah bars and cafés. California, Illinois, New York, Texas and Virginia currently have the greatest number of these establishments, most of them located in major cities or near universities. However, hookah bars and cafés have appeared in more than two-thirds of the states. Based on U.S. business listings and categorized web-listings, an estimated 200 to 300 of them currently operate in the United States, with more appearing every day.

Trends and Marketing

Hookah smoking is commonly viewed as a social activity. Often done in groups of people who share one pipe and try different flavours throughout the evening, hookah smoking is seen as a relatively inexpensive way to “get together” and have fun. The expansion of the hookah bar and café industry, especially in inner cities and near universities and colleges where youth and young adults gather, illustrates the growth potential for hookah marketing and use.

Current marketing for hookah pipes and their specialized tobacco packs is fairly limited to specialized shops and online stores. The cafés and bars, on the other hand, are expanding rapidly to reach wider audiences. While online chats, blogs and other user sites are still a big part of the hookah culture in the United States, business owners are branching out. Advertisements in the nation’s 80 alternative, free weekly papers are very common, as are ads in college newspapers and magazines. Again, young urban adults and college students are the targets.

Conclusions

Existing evidence on water pipe smoking shows that it carries many of the same health risks and has been linked to many of the same diseases caused by cigarette smoking. Access to this “new” form of tobacco use continues to grow, especially in hookah cafes targeting 18-to-24 year olds. Water pipes can become yet another inducement to smoking that appeal particularly to a younger audience attracted by the reportedly sweeter, smoother smoke. They may have an appeal similar to the sweeter, candy-flavoured cigarettes and tobacco products that the tobacco industry has begun to market to young adults and youth who appear to be more attracted to these flavours than adults.

More research is needed into the health effects of water pipe use, and the patterns and process of beginning to use water pipes amongst various populations. Since little data exist on prevalence of hookah use in the United States, national surveys on youth and adult tobacco use should consider adding a question on this topic. There also is virtually no research on the risks of second-hand smoke from water pipe use. To protect the public from the potential dangers of the growing water pipe trend, the tobacco control community must work to correct the current misperceptions about the health risks of water pipe smoking. Advocates also must ensure that new smoke free air laws include hookahs and the places where hookahs are smoked and remove loopholes from existing laws that make hookahs popular and accessible. Health care providers, quit lines and university administrators should also consider offering culturally appropriate cessation products and services to help water pipe smokers attempt to quit.

Image by: SXC

15 Types of Cancer Caused by Smoking

This factsheet reviews the risks of developing various types of cancer from smoking or other tobacco use. Smoking is the biggest risk factor for and largest single cause of cancer  and approximately one third of all cancer deaths are attributable to smoking. Globally, one in five cancer deaths are caused by tobacco.

In October 2009, scientists from 10 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to reassess the carcinogenicity of several compounds, including tobacco. The review, published by The Lancet Oncology, concludes that there is sufficient evidence to confirm that smoking is a cause of 15 types of cancer: namely: cancer of the bladder, bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia, cervix, colorectum (large bowel), kidney, larynx (voice box), liver, lung, mouth (including lip and tongue), nose, oesophagus (gullet), ovaries, pancreas, pharynx (throat) and stomach. The
report also states that there is some evidence to suggest that smoking is a cause of breast cancer.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer has been the most common form of cancer in the world for a number of decades, accounting for 1.61 million new cases and 1.38 million deaths every year.

Lung cancer is the cancer most commonly associated with smoking: around 85-90% of all lung cancers are caused by smoking, or as a result of exposure to second-hand smoke. Because of its poor prognosis, lung cancer is still the most common cause of cancer death. Fewer than ten percent of people with lung cancer will survive five years beyond diagnosis.

One in two persistent smokers will die of a smoking-related illness: of these, nearly one in four will die of lung cancer. Current smokers are fifteen times more likely to die from lung cancer than life-long non-smokers.  Smokers who start when they are young are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Results of a study of ex-smokers with lung cancer found that those who started smoking before age 15 had twice as many cell mutations as those who started after age 20.

Cancers of the mouth and throat

Cigarette, pipe and cigar smoking are all major risk factors for cancers associated with the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus. The risk for these cancers increases with the number of cigarettes smoked15 and those who smoke pipes or cigars experience a risk similar to that of cigarette smokers. It has been estimated that smoking is a cause of 85% of deaths from oral cancer (cancers of the lip, tongue, mouth and throat) amongst men in industrialised countries.

Heavy smokers have laryngeal cancer mortality risks 20 to 30 times greater than non-smokers. People who combined alcohol and tobacco use have a much higher risk of oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers than those using tobacco or alcohol individually.

Smokeless tobacco, including chewing tobacco and snuff, has been associated with oral cancer for many decades. While the risk is considered small in comparison to smoking, a risk exists nevertheless. A US study comparing mortality rates among former smokers who switched to smokeless tobacco with those who stopped using tobacco altogether found that risks of dying from major tobacco-related diseases were higher among former cigarette smokers who switched to oral tobacco after they stopped smoking than among those who stopped using tobacco entirely.

Bladder cancer

Tobacco smoking is the principal preventable risk factor for bladder cancer in both men and women. The European Network of Cancer Registries states that bladder cancer is the 7th most common form of cancer amongst men and 14th amongst women and cites cigarette smoking as the principle risk factor.  According to Cancer Research UK, the risk of developing bladder cancer is six times higher in current smokers than in people who have never smoked. As with lung cancer, the risk is associated with both the dose and duration of smoking, while cessation of smoking reduces the risk, returning to that of a non-smoker after 15 years.28

Breast cancer

Most older studies found no association between smoking and breast cancer, but new evidence suggests that there is a link between nicotine and breast cancer. Researchers found that nicotine enhances the growth of breast cancer cells which means that smoking could be causally related to breast carcinogenesis and also that nicotine could directly contribute to the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. Other studies suggest that the increase in breast cancer risk mostly affects pre-menopausal women.

Colorectal/Colon cancer (large bowel)

The recent IARC update (2010) concludes that smoking is a cause of colon cancer. These findings are echoed by the World Health Organization and the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. There is some disagreement about the degree of risk and further research is needed to clarify the relative risk of smoking and colon cancer.

Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer accounts for just under 3% of all cancers in men and just under 2% in women living in the UK. Although comparatively rare, kidney cancer has consistently been found to be more common in smokers than in non-smokers and there is sufficient evidence to show that smoking is a risk factor for the two principal types of kidney cancer.

According to Cancer Research UK, smokers are twice as likely to develop kidney cancer than non-smokers. There is a dose-response relationship with an increase in the numbers of smoked per day. Risk appears to drop after smoking cessation.  Approximately 24% of kidney cancer cases in men and 9% in women can be attributed to smoking.

Leukaemia

Smoking has been found to be a cause of myeloid leukaemia but not lymphoid leukaemia in adults. There is some evidence to suggest that parental smoking can increase the risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) in children. A possible reason for this is the presence of benzene in the smoke.

Liver cancer

Large case-control studies have demonstrated an association between smoking and risk of liver cancer. In many studies, the risk increases with duration of smoking or number of smoked daily. Confounding from alcohol can be ruled out in the best case-control studies by means of careful adjustment for drinking habits, as association with smoking has also been demonstrated among non-drinkers.

People who have a Hepatitis B or C infection have a higher risk of liver cancer if they smoke. Some studies have estimated this risk to be one hundred times higher compared to non-smokers who are not infected with the virus.

Researchers investigating the relationship between liver cancer and cigar smoking reported a seven-fold increase in risk. A separate study found a three-fold increase in risk for current cigar or pipe smokers.

Nasal cancer

Smoking has been found to increase the risk of cancer of the nose and sinuses, particularly for squamous-cell carcinoma. Cancer Research UK notes that even though nasal cancer is rare, smoking significantly increases the risk of developing the disease.

Oesophageal cancer (gullet)

Tobacco smoking is a cause of cancer of the oesophagus (gullet). Tobacco and alcohol, acting independently and together, are the main risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in Western countries. The risk increases with duration of smoking and also remains legated many years after smoking cessation.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women in the UK and the most common gynaecological cancer. It has recently been included in the IARC list of cancers caused by smoking.

Smoking doubles a woman’s risk of a particular sub-type of the disease: mucinous ovarian cancer. Stopping smoking returns the risk to that of non-smokers in the long term.

Pancreatic cancer

Cancer of the pancreas is a rapidly fatal disease with a five-year survival rate of only 4%. The disease is caused by damage (mutations) to the DNA, with smoking a significant risk.

Cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco are also known to increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Researchers based in Scandinavia found that type of smokeless tobacco increased the risk of pancreatic cancer. These researchers found that around 1 in 5 cases of pancreatic cancer in Swedish men may be due to smokeless tobacco.

Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer has been in decline in recent years but remains the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second most common form of cancer death. Cancer Research UK estimates that around 20% of stomach cancers in Europe are caused by smoking.

Current smokers have around double the risk of stomach cancer compared to non-smokers and risk remains higher for 10-20 years after quitting smoking. Risk increases with duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked, and decreases with increasing duration of successful quitting.

Vulva and vagina cancers

There is an association between smoking and cancer of the vulva, with reported three- to six-fold increases in risk in women who smoke. Risk increases with the duration of smoking, and remains elevated more than five years after quitting. There is some evidence that smoking raises the risk of cancer of the vagina although this association remains uncertain.

Passive smoking Adults

Non-smokers are at risk of contracting lung cancer from exposure to other people’s smoke. The UK’s Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health (SCOTH) reported an increased risk of lung cancer in non-smokers of between 20% and 30%.  A subsequent review of the evidence by SCOTH in 2004 re-confirmed that the increased risk was in the order of 24%. This means that passive smoking causes several hundred lung cancer deaths in non-smokers each year in the UK. The 2004 IARC review confirmed that “the evidence is sufficient to conclude that involuntary smoking is a cause of lung cancer in never smokers.”

Children

  • A report by the British Medical Association found suggestive evidence that exposure to second-hand smoke can cause childhood cancer (in particular brain cancer and lymphoma). It can also lead to cancer in adulthood.
  • Children who are exposed to tobacco smoke on a daily basis grow up with more than triple the risk of lung cancer later in life compared to those who grow up in smoke free environments.
  •  A study in Sweden released in 2006 has shown that parents who smoke are greatly increasing their child’s risk of developing several types of cancer. Similar risks for exposure by mothers and fathers smoking were found for lung cancer (71%), and upper aerodigestive cancer (45%).
  • There was an 8-fold increased risk of developing nasal cancer (nasal adenoid cystic carcinoma) by exposure to SHS from either parent during childhood.
  • A further study in the United States found a positive association between maternal smoking and the development of pancreatic cancer later in life amongst children exposed to maternal smoking.

 Image by SCX

How to Quit Smoking Shisha by Thinking the Benefits Overtime

Today we look for changes in as much as everything in our surroundings. We know change and it has all its effects. In quitting smoking Shisha and the changes it can bring and manifest in your life is fascinating.
The sooner you can free your body from the constant punishment of smoking Shisha then the sooner it can recover from years of abuse. The body has amazing recuperative powers. Once you stop smoking Shisha, your body will show some immediate improvement as it adjusts to no longer having to accommodate smoking and its effects. The longer you have smoked, the more the body will have to overcome

to return to a more natural and healthier state.

It is never too late to give up smoking. Have you thought what changes can happen in your body if you stop smoking Shisha now? Have you thought about, what are the amazing benefits you can have by merely stop smoking Shisha? If not, then this article is for you; in here you will know how to quit smoking Shisha by thinking the benefit overtime.

Benefits Overtime by Quitting Smoking Shisha

After Quitting: 20 minutes

Your heart rate and blood pressure drop. Only 20 minutes after your very last Shisha session your body will begin to return to normal. Both your blood pressure and your pulse rate will have stabilised at a more natural level. As your circulation improves, the temperature in your hands and feet increases to a normal level as the arteries recover.

After Quitting: 8 hours

The levels of nicotine and carbon monoxide in the blood reduce by half and oxygen levels return to normal after 8 hours of quitting smoking Shisha. Now the body’s circulation improves.

 After Quitting: 12 hours

The changes that will occur just after 12 hour after of quitting smoking Shisha is that, there is a normalized level of carbon monoxide in your blood.

After Quitting: 24 hours

Carbon monoxide and nicotine leave the body. After 24 hours you begin to see some of the long-term benefits. Not only is your body now functioning more efficiently, the chances of enjoying your improved health are also increased. Not smoking Shisha for a day is all it takes to reduce your statistical chances of suffering a heart attack and improve your chances of surviving one. It also takes about 24 hours for the last of the extra carbon monoxide from smoking to be eliminated from your body.

After Quitting: 48 hours

The ability to taste and smell improves. About 48 hours after you have stopped smoking Shisha you will probably notice that your senses of taste and smell have become much keener compared to their previously dulled state. Excess mucus and toxic debris that has collected over time will begin to be cleared from the lungs. Although there will initially be an increase in the amount of mucus dislodged from the lungs, breathing will gradually become easier. Amazingly, those nerve endings that were damaged by the smoking habit will begin to regenerate once you quit.

After Quitting: 72 hours

After 72 hours of not smoking Shisha, your bronchial tubes become more relaxed and less constricted, making it easier to breathe. The risk of thrombosis is reduced as the blood’s clotting agent’s return to normal.

After Quitting: 2 weeks to 3 months

By this time, your body experience improved circulation and lung function. Your circulation is much better and your lung function increases. Some 2 weeks to 3 months into the non-smoking recovery your lung capacity will have increased by up to 30%.

After Quitting: 3 to 9 months

Coughing and wheezing decline. In combination with improved circulation, this means that you will find it easier to engage in physical exercise.

After Quitting: 1 month to 9 months

After you have ceased smoking many of the noticeable adverse symptoms of smoking will have improved. You will experience less coughing, wheezing, sinus congestion and shortness of breath. The fatigue associated with these symptoms will decrease as your overall energy levels continue to rise. As the microscopic, hair-like cilia regrow, they increase the lung’s ability to purify the air by once again filtering out impurities

and clearing mucus. This also reduces the chances of developing an infection.

After Quitting: 1 year

The excess risk of coronary heart disease is half that of a continuing smoker’s. One year without smoking Shisha will mean that the excess risk of coronary heart disease is now approximately half that of a smoker. After 2 years the risk of a heart attack drops to a more normal level.

After Quitting: 5 years

Risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bladder are cut in half. Cervical cancer risk falls to that of a non-smoker.  The risk of developing cancer of the mouth, throat or oesophagus will now be half that of a smoker.

After Quitting: 10 years

The risk of dying from lung cancer is about half that of a person who is still smoking. The risk of cancer of the larynx and pancreas decreases. Approximately 10 years after you stopped smoking, your lung cancer death rate will now be equivalent to that of a non-smoker. The risk of developing other cancers, such as cancer of the kidneys, pancreas or bladder, is decreased. Healthy cells gradually replace pre-cancerous cells in the body.

After Quitting: 15 years

The risk of coronary heart disease is that of a non-smoker’s. After you have refrained from smoking for 15 years, your risk of developing coronary heart disease will be the same as that of a life-long non-smoker.

These are just a few of the benefits of quitting smoking Shisha for good. Quitting smoking at any time in one’s life is beneficial. Some people wait until they are ordered to do so by their doctor or surgeon but even the recuperative capacity of the body has its limits. You are much better advised to quit smoking before you develop any serious health problems. Generally speaking, giving up smoking makes your body healthier and increases the chances that you will stay that way. Quit smoking Shisha now, and keep in mind the benefits mentioned. Imagine yourself having all these improvements. Remember everything is possible. You have the power change the coarse of your future.